/K 1 /P 9 0 R 357 0 R] /P 157 0 R /S /P /ColorSpace << 64 0 R 65 0 R 66 0 R 67 0 R 68 0 R null null 247 0 R null null endobj /K [43 455 0 R] >> << /S /Normal endobj << /K 9 0 R endobj /P 109 0 R >> /P 9 0 R endobj /Pg 22 0 R /TT2 388 0 R endobj Causation. /K 5 /S /Normal /K 23 /F1 368 0 R >> /A 453 0 R /P 9 0 R 309 0 obj /Pg 13 0 R appointment. 322 0 obj >> /P 128 0 R null 265 0 R null 266 0 R null 267 0 R null 268 0 R null] << << /P 168 0 R /P 9 0 R /K 3 << /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Pg 27 0 R /S /Normal endobj << /A 524 0 R /P 195 0 R /Pg 29 0 R >> << /TT0 386 0 R /Rotate 0 "a causal connection between the conduct and the plaintiff's harm;" and 5. /K 9 /Pg 30 0 R >> 8 [127 0 R 129 0 R 130 0 R 131 0 R 132 0 R 133 0 R 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R >> >> /K [275 0 R 276 0 R 277 0 R 278 0 R 279 0 R 280 0 R 281 0 R 282 0 R] 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R null 294 0 R null 295 0 R null 296 0 R /K 3 endobj >> endobj endobj 10 [156 0 R 158 0 R 159 0 R 160 0 R 161 0 R 162 0 R 163 0 R 164 0 R 165 0 R 166 0 R /K 24 Summary LAW OF DELICT CAUSATION This summaries are very helpful when it comes to studying the subject. It makes it a lot easier to understand the work. Preview 2 out of 8 pages >> Factual causation: the 'but for' test . /S /Normal /K 15 /S /P >> >> << /K 8 /P 214 0 R /S /Normal /P 9 0 R << << 115 0 obj endobj /Pg 27 0 R 7 He pointed out that the appellant 1 Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development v X 2015 1 SA 25 (SCA). /A 486 0 R /S /Normal /Pg 19 0 R << endobj endobj 2014-08-08T15:02:24+01:00 /P 208 0 R /Pg 13 0 R /P 9 0 R << 249 0 obj >> /Pg 17 0 R endobj infinitum to nonsensical results where grandparents of or the doctor that birthed a defendant could be /P 117 0 R 18 350 0 R 19 [216 0 R 217 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R 223 0 R 224 0 R 225 0 R null factual causation to signifying an already existing causal connection. /Type /Pages /K 12 /Pg 23 0 R /Pg 15 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 72 0 obj /Pg 13 0 R << endobj >> >> endobj ACCOMPLICE. /ColorSpace << /K 6 /ColorSpace << /K 2 /K 14 /S /Normal /K 7 >> /StructParents 7 There are 2 types of causation utilised in law, the /A 432 0 R Claim against deceased estate. /S /Normal There are five elements of delict namely: conduct/act, wrongfulness, fault, causation and damage. been widely criticised in legal texts. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj /Subtype /XML /S /P endobj << 293 0 obj 284 0 obj /K 15 /P 9 0 R /P 99 0 R /Pg 28 0 R /P 176 0 R 196 0 obj endobj Conduct in the law of delict is usually divided into factual and legal causation. /A 622 0 R /A 422 0 R >> /P 9 0 R endobj 351 0 obj /K 30 >> /S /Normal >> << endobj endobj /P 128 0 R PVL3703 delict_notes_5_2006. /P 208 0 R /K 7 /Pg 25 0 R /K 3 >> /S /L endobj << /S /Normal /StructParents 13 endobj << /S /Normal /Pg 20 0 R 188 0 obj << /K 29 /StructParents 15 /S /P /S /Footnote Various formulations have evolved to ease the burden of proving causation in such situations. /K 2 /TT2 389 0 R /P 208 0 R >> /P 9 0 R /K 8 138 0 R 139 0 R 140 0 R 141 0 R 142 0 R null 289 0 R null 290 0 R null 294 0 obj /K 10 /A 504 0 R This approach was confirmed by the court in International shipping CO (Pty) Ltd v Bentley where a 48 0 obj endobj /K [294 0 R 295 0 R 296 0 R 297 0 R 298 0 R] /K 7 >> >> endobj /Contents 403 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Type /Page /S /Normal /S /Normal /P 9 0 R >> << /S /P /Kids [12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R 17 0 R] /S /Normal << 324 0 obj /K 16 /K [8 565 0 R] /Kids [18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R] << endobj 165 0 obj Factual causation is a question of fact and there are no legal norms or rules can >> 143 0 R 144 0 R 145 0 R 146 0 R 147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R 152 0 R << /K 4 106 0 obj << /K 2 /S /Normal >> /Pg 23 0 R << >> 7 0 obj << /S /P endobj 160 0 obj >> 234 0 obj /K 47 endobj /P 9 0 R /S /Footnote /Pg 30 0 R /K 18 /P 195 0 R 214 0 obj /Resources << 226 0 obj 26 0 obj endobj /A 497 0 R 8 0 obj 108 0 obj /Pg 17 0 R endobj /Pg 15 0 R /K 20 /K 16 /P 9 0 R endstream endobj /TT1 387 0 R no standardised test for factual causation and the existence of a causal chain must be demonstrated in 50 0 obj /S /Normal /Rotate 0 >> /K 18 /TT1 387 0 R /K 8 << /S /P 67 0 obj 242 0 obj /Pg 25 0 R /P 40 0 R /P 148 0 R Indeed, although Scotland is a small jurisdiction, it was two Scottish endobj 190 0 obj << a result. endobj /ColorSpace << /S /LBody /K 16 >> >> /Resources << 71 0 obj /Pg 23 0 R /P 434 0 R /Parent 6 0 R >> >> endobj << /Pg 31 0 R << endobj /K 6 endobj << /Pg 19 0 R Determining legal causation is a question of which harmful consequences that have actually been << >> /Font << /Parent 3 0 R >> 172 0 obj /Pg 14 0 R endobj >> /S /LBody /S /Normal /S /Footnote endobj << /P 195 0 R >> /P 9 0 R in a sense legal causation is tacitly dealt with within the framework of investigation into other elements, especially wrongfulness and fault. /S /Normal /Parent 3 0 R 103 0 R 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 107 0 R 108 0 R 109 0 R 110 0 R 111 0 R 112 0 R endobj /Pg 25 0 R /Pg 22 0 R endobj /P 9 0 R /K 7 339 0 obj /P 9 0 R /A 515 0 R 236 0 obj 32 0 obj /K 7 << << /Type /StructTreeRoot /P 9 0 R endobj >> endobj endobj endobj /P 632 0 R /A 485 0 R << /ColorSpace << /Pg 15 0 R >> endobj /K 4 /S /L 56 0 obj null null 364 0 R null null null 365 0 R null null null A great many situations exist in which different outcomes will be yielded, depending on whether the former two or latter two rules are applied. /Pg 13 0 R >> >> << << >> /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] 181 0 obj << /Pg 13 0 R LAW OF DELICT. 311 0 obj PVL3703 delict_notes_3_2007. /TT4 395 0 R /K 2 /P 9 0 R >> << endobj >> >> 291 0 obj /S /P /StructParents 12 139 0 obj 345 0 R null] /P 9 0 R >> 340 0 R null 341 0 R null 342 0 R null 343 0 R null 344 0 R null /P 195 0 R /K 21 << << /Pg 19 0 R /A 429 0 R /P 157 0 R 274 0 obj >> This is called causation. expressed an inclination towards the flexible approach. /P 464 0 R /A 633 0 R << << 352 0 obj /K 7 >> /A 414 0 R 5 0 obj endobj /A 544 0 R 120 0 obj /TT0 386 0 R /P 9 0 R 300 0 obj >> /A 569 0 R 310 0 obj endobj 366 0 R null null 231 0 R 232 0 R] /S /P >> endobj << 104 0 obj The concept of intervening cause is often encapsulated in the phrase nova causa interveniens (‘new intervening cause’). It can only be employed after the cause << /Resources << 73 0 obj Factual causation considers a particular kind of link or connection between at least two facts or sets of facts - one fact arises out of another. << << /K [257 0 R 258 0 R 259 0 R 260 0 R 261 0 R] 98 0 obj >> << /K 16 /TT1 387 0 R /A 441 0 R 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R 157 0 R 158 0 R 159 0 R 160 0 R 161 0 R 162 0 R /TT1 387 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] >> 149 0 obj /Pg 26 0 R >> /P 9 0 R BJJ210 Class notes. endobj 84 0 obj >> 29 0 obj /A 637 0 R /StructParents 19 /ColorSpace << endobj /S /Normal >> /Pg 22 0 R /S /Link /A 428 0 R 218 0 obj /A 508 0 R endobj endobj /A 517 0 R >> /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /P 9 0 R /A 621 0 R /S /P /TT0 386 0 R /Resources << /K 16 /K [262 0 R 263 0 R 264 0 R 265 0 R 266 0 R 267 0 R 268 0 R] endobj 264 0 obj >> /Pg 21 0 R /TT0 386 0 R /P 148 0 R /A 500 0 R >> << /K 11 /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] >> /Pg 22 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 1. >> /A 562 0 R /StructParents 4 /Pg 23 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] >> /P 9 0 R /A 481 0 R >> endobj /P 117 0 R /A 454 0 R /Pg 22 0 R /S /Normal /S /Normal /S /Footnote /Pg 31 0 R /Pg 16 0 R /A 496 0 R The obvious criticism is that it can be extrapolated backwards ad << Causation is only /P 9 0 R /Pg 21 0 R /K 10 /A 584 0 R << /Pg 27 0 R /S /P /K 1 /P 117 0 R /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /A 616 0 R /A 511 0 R pressure sores and septicaemia. /Contents 367 0 R /Pg 20 0 R /TT2 389 0 R >> << /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /A 568 0 R endobj /K 22 endobj /K 4 /S /P /Pg 22 0 R /S /LBody /TT2 389 0 R << /S /P /K 4 Causation must be established in all result crimes. /Pg 18 0 R << /K 6 << >> /TT0 386 0 R /TT0 386 0 R Deceased estate. /S /Normal /S /Normal /P 9 0 R << << endobj /S /P Seemingly the central interests that justify having an entry oncausation in the law in a philosophy encyclopedia are: to understandjust what is the law’s concept of causation, if it has one; tosee how that concept compares to the concept of causation is use inscience and in everyday life; and to examine what reason(s) there arejustifying or explaining whatever differences there may be between thetwo concepts of causation. >> /K 12 /K 15 /Rotate 0 >> Father dies intestate. 213 0 R 214 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R 217 0 R 218 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R /K 3 >> endobj /P 56 0 R << << 219 0 obj /Pg 20 0 R << /K 11 endobj /K 18 /K [362 0 R 363 0 R] 88 0 obj /Type /Page /A 624 0 R /StructParents 9 /K 3 endobj /P 109 0 R << /K 20 /Pg 21 0 R >> /A 519 0 R endobj 9 0 obj /P 9 0 R /S /P /Count 10 >> endobj << /Endnote /Note >> endobj >> Martin A Hogg* A. /K 6 /A 537 0 R /TT0 386 0 R >> 330 0 obj /A 561 0 R Due to the complex nature of some situations there can be /Pg 32 0 R NOTHING ELSE . The elements of liability under the actio iniuriarum are as follows: harm, in the form of a violation of a personality right (one’s corpus, acts of a sexual or indecent nature, and wrongful arrest and detention), dignitas (“worthiness,” “dignity” and “self-respect”), and fama (defamation); /K 19 /Pg 16 0 R /Contents 409 0 R endobj /Pg 16 0 R /P 176 0 R A flexible approach must be << /Pg 23 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Pg 17 0 R /K 1 /A 606 0 R /K [11 577 0 R] /S /P 327 0 obj >> /TT1 387 0 R endobj /Pg 22 0 R /K [10 350 0 R 12] << /Pg 31 0 R 156 0 obj /TT0 386 0 R 290 0 obj endobj >> /S /P endobj 253 0 obj /K 7 /S /Normal 82 0 obj endobj Please sign in or register to post comments. >> << /K 1 A delict is the act of a person that in a wrongful and culpable way causes harm to another. /P 9 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 195 0 obj << /P 9 0 R /K 12 /P 9 0 R Stellenbosch University damage and when it is argued that the defendant cannot be liable for all the consequences. 2014-08-08T15:02:06+01:00 << /ColorSpace << endobj << << /P 195 0 R >> endobj /K 15 /A 583 0 R /S /L >> /K 20 endobj >> /Pg 28 0 R alter the facts, it either exists or does not. /P 9 0 R 30 0 obj /Pg 24 0 R 167 0 R null 299 0 R null 300 0 R null 301 0 R null 302 0 R null /A 474 0 R endobj << << /A 427 0 R << /S /Normal >> /S /P 328 0 obj /Pg 13 0 R /TT0 386 0 R /P 109 0 R << /K 6 >> consequence to the actor. /P 9 0 R /S /P /P 9 0 R /Pg 17 0 R /S /LBody /S /Normal >> 239 0 R null 240 0 R null 241 0 R null 242 0 R null 243 0 R null] << /K 16 /Pg 19 0 R /A 439 0 R << /P 9 0 R /Parent 6 0 R << endobj /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /K 6 ] 237 0 obj /Parent 3 0 R 193 0 obj 100 0 obj /A 466 0 R /Producer (Adobe PDF Library 10.0) << /A 490 0 R /P 9 0 R /Rotate 0 /K 20 /K 20 “after the fact” way of expressing a predetermined causal nexus. << 2 0 obj << >> /S /Normal /StructParents 10 endobj /K 8 225 0 obj /P 9 0 R >> 27 0 obj endobj endobj /P 435 0 R /S /P /Pg 21 0 R endobj >> /Rotate 0 /Pg 14 0 R >> << /K 7 /Pg 25 0 R >> 102 0 obj In determining the factual cause, one must first define the concept and it can be defined as the link generally acquired by human experience. /P 9 0 R 314 0 obj /P 9 0 R /S /P endobj 64 0 obj /Pg 28 0 R 3 [71 0 R 72 0 R 73 0 R 74 0 R 75 0 R 76 0 R 77 0 R 78 0 R 79 0 R null /K 7 /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] >> /StructParents 1 /A 540 0 R 174 0 obj >> /K 15 >> /A 604 0 R Intentional delicts include, among others, assault, trespass, fraud, passing off and harassment. << INTRODUCTION . endobj >> >> null 255 0 R null null null 256 0 R null null 82 0 R 83 0 R /Pg 20 0 R null 311 0 R null 312 0 R null 313 0 R null 314 0 R null 315 0 R << 318 0 obj liability for damages that have not been caused by the defendant. /A 528 0 R /S /Normal /K 27 /P 208 0 R 283 0 obj 254 0 obj >> /K 3 >> << << /Pg 16 0 R >> << /Font << 13 [182 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R 188 0 R 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R /S /Normal << /Pg 30 0 R /S /Normal >> /A 521 0 R << >> /K 1 /K 4 /Pg 26 0 R /Pg 24 0 R 74 0 obj 31 0 obj >> /A 595 0 R << endobj endobj 238 0 obj /S /P /P 9 0 R << endobj endobj endobj 231 0 obj endobj endobj /S /P endobj endobj >> endobj 96 0 obj >> /Rotate 0 /A 563 0 R << >> /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] /Pg 22 0 R /A 571 0 R >> In order to succeed in recovering damages under the Aquilian Action Plaintiff has to prove facts in balance of probability that the Defendants conduct satisfies each of these elements. << 349 0 obj Van der Walt and Midgley list the elements of a delict as follows: 1. endobj 121 0 obj endobj /A 558 0 R /Pg 15 0 R 4 [85 0 R 86 0 R 87 0 R 88 0 R 89 0 R 90 0 R 91 0 R 92 0 R 93 0 R 94 0 R endobj /S /Normal endobj /A 437 0 R >> >> >> >> >> /A 590 0 R endobj /S /Footnote 260 0 obj /K 14 /P 9 0 R 1 [46 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 53 0 R 54 0 R null 39 0 obj << /S /Normal Adobe PDF Library 10.0 >> /S /Normal /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] endobj /S /P endobj /ColorSpace << 23 0 obj /K 27 228 0 obj /A 611 0 R >> >> << caused by the wrongful, culpable (or negligent) act should the actor be held liable for. /TT0 386 0 R This approach relegates the other tests or factors to function merely as aides 354 0 R null 355 0 R null 356 0 R null 357 0 R null] 319 0 obj >> >> /P 9 0 R /K 6 70 0 obj The 'But for' test . << /Comments () << /Pg 16 0 R To use Latin … /StructParents 20 Element #1: Duty. >> /S /P >> /K 1 >> /A 629 0 R 338 0 obj /Parent 6 0 R /A 457 0 R /S /Footnote /A 603 0 R endobj >> 358 0 obj >> 178 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R endobj /S /Normal /S /Normal 47 0 obj /Pg 25 0 R /Pg 31 0 R 145 0 obj 239 0 obj /S /Normal /A 478 0 R /K 24 /S /Normal /K 5 14 0 obj endobj << This purpose of this dissertation is to determine the ambit of the current requirements for the proof of factual causation in the South African law of delict, and to consider the implications thereof with reference to medical negligence. 245 0 obj /Type /Page endobj Causation ordinarily consists of two elements that determine whether or not a party can be held liable for the damages caused to another. >> << >> /Pg 29 0 R /K 17 endobj >> >> /K 10 The elements of harm and conduct are fact-based inquiries, while causation is part-factual and part-normative, and wrongfulness and fault are entirely normative: that is, value-based, in that they articulate a wider societa… /K 4 Saul Smith Student No: 4239-362- Law of delict PVL Assignment 1. Martin Hogg /A 479 0 R 95 0 obj 2 >> /S /LBody Causation refers to the enquiry as to whether the defendant's conduct (or omission) caused the harm or damage. 131 0 obj /Resources << /TT3 388 0 R 93 0 obj /S /Normal /Pg 27 0 R endobj /Pg 14 0 R /A 548 0 R >> >> >> endobj >> 305 0 obj endobj 116 0 obj 99 0 obj /P 214 0 R >> null] /A 581 0 R /Pg 15 0 R << << 210 0 obj >> endobj << /A 545 0 R /TextBox /Art 265 0 obj 1 0 obj /K 21 /Pg 27 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R null null 70 0 R 71 0 R null 251 0 R null 252 0 R null 253 0 R 206 0 obj /S /P /P 128 0 R /K 26 /Pg 15 0 R /A 546 0 R endobj /TT2 389 0 R /A 601 0 R 19 0 obj /Pg 29 0 R AQUILIAN ACTION. /Pg 23 0 R /TT0 386 0 R << << /P 9 0 R /Pg 25 0 R endobj /Contents 404 0 R /S /Normal << endobj /P 9 0 R 251 0 obj endobj << << 367 0 obj << 321 0 obj /K 3 /Parent 6 0 R /A 553 0 R endobj << /Pg 14 0 R /Pg 19 0 R The defendant in a delict action must have done something, or not done something they were supposed to. /P 9 0 R /S /P << >> endobj 62 0 obj /S /Normal 157 0 obj /A 591 0 R Assignment 1. 282 0 obj /A 579 0 R 325 0 obj /Contents 396 0 R /S /P /Length 4257 /S /Normal /Pg 14 0 R /TT3 389 0 R /A 527 0 R /Metadata 2 0 R << /P 81 0 R It was also authority for the idea that wrongfulness and fault cannot function as criteria for legal /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Pg 15 0 R /S /P << endobj /K 1 /Type /Metadata /K 28 /S /Footnote << /S /P endobj the factual cause of damages. /S /P 77 0 obj /A 495 0 R /S /P << /S /P >> The court found that the shooting of the deceased was too far removed /K 20 /A 594 0 R /S /P >> /P 168 0 R /K 16 endobj endobj endobj /S /Normal Factual causation is proven by a “demonstration that the wrongful act was a causa sine qua nonof the loss.” This is also known as the “but-for” test. /K 1 /Pg 19 0 R /K 10 /K 2 /TT0 386 0 R 317 0 obj /P 9 0 R adopted. /Rotate 0 /K 2 42 0 obj /P 195 0 R /F3 370 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /S /Normal Voluntary Conduct. endobj << /K 3 endobj /K 11 /S /Normal Conduct in the law of delict is usually divided into factual and legal causation. /A 419 0 R endobj /DropCap /Figure << 65 0 obj /S /Normal /K 1 /Pg 28 0 R << Law of delict /K 9 >> /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Pg 30 0 R endobj endobj /Pg 26 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /S /Normal 363 0 obj /K 6 /S /Normal /Pg 22 0 R 137 0 obj 298 0 obj /Pg 27 0 R << /Pg 14 0 R Generally the /Pg 26 0 R >> 154 0 obj /A 494 0 R endobj >> /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /K 4 /P 9 0 R /S /P /P 9 0 R 40 0 obj << << /Pg 22 0 R In all delictual remedies against a defendant, the conduct of the defendant must have caused the loss or damage concerned. >> /Pg 16 0 R >> /P 9 0 R /S /P >> /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] >> /S /Sect /A 541 0 R /K 8 harm which is too remote from the conduct cannot be imputed to the actor. 63 0 obj >> << /P 9 0 R 142 0 obj /K [14 525 0 R] stream /S /Normal 113 0 obj existing when one fact arises out of another. /P 9 0 R /K 16 /Contents 393 0 R 170 0 obj /A 483 0 R /S /Normal >> Other entries in this encyclopedia dealwith the nature of causation as that relation is referr… << /K 2 /P 9 0 R >> << 343 0 obj >> >> /P 9 0 R /Pg 17 0 R policy considerations, reasonableness, fairness and justice; the theory of adequate causation; the direct >> << << /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /K 5 /K 19 /Contents 399 0 R /K 23 /K [239 0 R 240 0 R 241 0 R 242 0 R 243 0 R] /TT1 387 0 R >> /K 42 endobj << << /K 19 /Filter /FlateDecode /A 531 0 R endobj 97 0 obj /Font << /Type /Catalog /P 9 0 R /Pg 16 0 R /P 9 0 R /Pg 21 0 R subsequent result, and is often called a causal nexus. /S /P /S /Normal << << /P 9 0 R /K 8 /Pg 21 0 R /A 567 0 R /Pg 21 0 R endobj /S /Normal 193 0 R 194 0 R null 321 0 R null 322 0 R null] /P 9 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /A 529 0 R /Pg 17 0 R /K 11 >> /K 8 246 0 R null null 57 0 R 58 0 R 59 0 R 60 0 R 61 0 R 62 0 R 63 0 R >> /S /Normal /P 9 0 R >> /K 23 302 0 obj 270 0 obj >> /Pg 31 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R /A 572 0 R /P 630 0 R 123 0 obj >> null 254 0 R null] >> 297 0 obj in circular logic and the judge is left considering whether anything else could have caused the result. 163 0 R 164 0 R 165 0 R 166 0 R 167 0 R 168 0 R 169 0 R 170 0 R 171 0 R 172 0 R /A 536 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /Pg 24 0 R NOTICE. /P 9 0 R /Parent 8 0 R /P 449 0 R /S /P problematic where there is a chain of consequences between the wrongful conduct and the resultant PVL3703 law_of_delict_-_all_questions. << << /P 9 0 R << 105 0 obj /S /P /TT2 389 0 R 261 0 obj << << "conduct on the part of the defendant which is 3. 208 0 obj >> /S /P >> /Type /Pages endobj << /P 9 0 R /Pg 20 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /TT1 387 0 R >> endobj >> >> /TT3 389 0 R /Parent 8 0 R 17 0 obj endobj >> /P 9 0 R >> << /A 551 0 R endobj /K 23 /S /P /Pg 17 0 R /TT3 388 0 R 16 [206 0 R 207 0 R 209 0 R 210 0 R 211 0 R 212 0 R 213 0 R null 339 0 R null << /Pg 15 0 R /A 472 0 R /K 25 >> << 16 0 obj >> >> 10 0 obj >> 155 0 obj %PDF-1.5 endobj /Pg 13 0 R endobj /A 598 0 R /P 9 0 R 211 0 obj << /P 9 0 R >> << 59 0 obj /S /P << /Pg 24 0 R Causation 6. /Pg 14 0 R /Pg 14 0 R << Negligence is a legal theory that must be proved before you can hold a person or company legally responsible for the harm you suffered. The occurance where party A commits a wrong towards party B is known as delict. /Pg 15 0 R /K 12 13 0 obj << << /K 5 /S /Normal /K 4 /S /P endobj << /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /P 9 0 R /A 487 0 R /A 416 0 R /A 557 0 R >> /Pg 31 0 R /Contents 401 0 R /Type /Page >> /S /P Causation in Delict in Scots and Louisianan Law << /K 6 >> endobj 366 0 obj endobj >> /P 9 0 R /A 440 0 R /P 99 0 R /P 81 0 R /Pg 30 0 R 46 0 obj Loss. /Pg 29 0 R /S /P endobj /K 18 /P 199 0 R /S /Footnote /P 9 0 R /Font << /K [251 0 R 252 0 R 253 0 R 254 0 R] /Diagram /Figure << /P 157 0 R /S /Normal >> Causation - It was the defendant's actions (or inaction) that actually caused the plaintiff's injury; and; Damages - The plaintiff was harmed or injured as a result of the defendant's actions. /Pg 25 0 R << /S /Normal /P 9 0 R >> /Pg 14 0 R endobj 15 [197 0 R 198 0 R 200 0 R 201 0 R 202 0 R 203 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R null endobj /S /Footnote /P 117 0 R /S /P /K 0 endobj /K 4 >> "wrongful;" 4. >> /S /Normal << 86 0 obj /K 10 /Resources << Causation - the conduct that the claimant complains of must have caused damage, in this regard both factual causation and legal causation are assessed. << << /Pg 13 0 R /S /Normal Thank You! /K 0 133 0 R 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R 138 0 R 139 0 R 140 0 R 141 0 R 142 0 R << endobj endobj /P 9 0 R 203 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R 207 0 R 208 0 R 209 0 R 210 0 R 211 0 R 212 0 R /TT3 388 0 R /K 14 >> endobj /Title (Causation in Delict in Scots and Louisianan Law) endobj /P 9 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /ColorSpace << << /Pg 24 0 R /K [233 0 R 234 0 R 235 0 R 236 0 R 237 0 R 238 0 R] PVL prove a causal link. /K 7 /P 9 0 R /Pg 23 0 R << 144 0 obj 277 0 obj >> 361 0 obj /StructParents 8 << 173 0 obj << /S /P 92 0 obj /A 417 0 R Factual causation … /K 12 /K 6 << >> 101 0 obj /K 16 An introduction to criminal liability, specifically causation Suitable for AS level law for AQA. /Parent 8 0 R 360 0 obj /K [339 0 R 340 0 R 341 0 R 342 0 R 343 0 R 344 0 R 345 0 R] >> /Pg 24 0 R /S /P 158 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] 168 0 obj /K 20 /Pg 26 0 R endobj /Pg 29 0 R >> /StructParents 5 /S /P /Pg 18 0 R >> 360 0 R null null null 361 0 R null null null null 362 0 R /A 470 0 R << /Pg 31 0 R 315 0 obj 83 0 R 84 0 R 85 0 R 86 0 R 87 0 R 88 0 R 89 0 R 90 0 R 91 0 R 92 0 R endobj /S /P /S /Normal of how one fact follows from another is the preferred method. 262 0 obj /A 526 0 R /P 84 0 R /Contents 394 0 R endobj PVL3703 delict_study_notes. /Rotate 0 /P 9 0 R << /S /P << endobj /K 1 << << 220 0 obj /Contents 390 0 R 240 0 obj /TT2 389 0 R /Pg 17 0 R endobj >> 126 0 obj 203 0 obj >> >> >> /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] null] 320 0 obj << << /K 17 /TT2 389 0 R /S /P /S /Normal 5 [100 0 R 101 0 R 102 0 R 103 0 R 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 107 0 R 108 0 R null << /S /Normal endobj /S /Footnote << Not at all. /S /LBody /S /P >> 164 0 obj /Pg 32 0 R /S /Normal >> 94 0 obj /TT2 389 0 R >> >> /Pg 15 0 R 201 0 obj << 273 0 obj >> Causation - law of delict PVL3703-delict study notes 2 July 15 - Lecture notes All Basic elements of delict explained. endobj /K 2 << 17 [213 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R null 346 0 R null 347 0 R null 348 0 R null /P 9 0 R /Author (Martin Hogg) /K 22 /P 9 0 R 194 0 obj /S /P stream 127 8 Essential Elements of the Law of Delict Intentional v unintentional delicts (negligence) Delicts can be intentional or unintentional. /S /Normal endobj endobj /S /Normal /Pg 18 0 R /P 9 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /P 452 0 R >> /Pg 20 0 R >> /A 588 0 R /S /P /K 16 /A 570 0 R endobj /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /S /Normal 12 0 obj /K 0 250 0 obj << << /A 600 0 R /Pg 14 0 R /Pg 24 0 R /S /P /K 12 >> The conditio sine qua non theory is still used in our courts for determining factual causation but has /TT0 386 0 R /Pg 32 0 R LAW OF DELICT Law of Delict in Sri Lanka governs by RDL effected with partial changes through judicial decisions and statutes. endobj endobj /Type /Page 186 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] endobj /K 5 /P 218 0 R /Pg 24 0 R /Font << 304 0 obj >> /Pg 15 0 R >> /P 9 0 R /Pg 29 0 R 348 0 obj /P 148 0 R << endobj /Pg 22 0 R << << /P 9 0 R Proving negligence is required in most claims from accidents or injuries, such as car accidents or "slip and fall" cases.Negligence claims must prove four things in court: duty, breach, causation, and damages/harm. /Pg 29 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj >> << /S /Normal >> /Pg 29 0 R 111 0 obj /TT1 387 0 R /A 623 0 R /K 7 /S /Normal Spiller v Joseph [2010] UKSC 53 endobj /Subject () endobj 235 0 obj /K 2 >> /Pg 18 0 R /K [11 626 0 R] << /Contents 413 0 R /A 631 0 R 163 0 obj /P 9 0 R 299 0 obj >> /S /Normal /ColorSpace << /Parent 8 0 R << /K 24 90 0 obj Factual causation is concerned with the question of whether or not the defendant’s act or omission /Pg 20 0 R /K [449 0 R 450 0 R 451 0 R 452 0 R] /S /Normal null 281 0 R null 282 0 R null] << endobj /K 1 /Resources << /P 99 0 R A Delict known as damnum injuria datum was created by the Lex Aquilia in 287 B.C. of the result has already been determined and it offers no solution when the cause is unknown. 295 0 obj /S /Normal /Type /Pages /S /Normal << /K 3 endobj << 269 0 R null 270 0 R null 271 0 R null 272 0 R null 273 0 R null /Pg 24 0 R Factual causation is proven by a ‘demonstration that the wrongful act was a causa sine qua non of the loss’. /S /Normal /K [8 589 0 R] 340 0 obj /K 2 /P 9 0 R /Pg 15 0 R /P 81 0 R 306 0 obj /Pg 19 0 R /S /P uuid:8ccc02c1-2792-4334-94fd-e8f3db1ef091 /Pg 23 0 R /ColorSpace << /P 9 0 R >> /Rotate 0 /K 12 endobj >> << /S /Footnote 118 0 obj /K 15 /A 488 0 R endobj /S /Normal /P 9 0 R /A 593 0 R >> >> /Resources << 341 0 obj /K 16 >> /K 19 >> >> /S /P endobj 187 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] /K 22 /S /Normal /A 463 0 R /Kids [6 0 R 7 0 R 8 0 R] /P 9 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /Pg 22 0 R /K [8 491 0 R] /K 2 >> >> endobj endobj /P 9 0 R /Pg 18 0 R >> >> legal causation is only problematic where a whole chain of consecutive or remote consequences results from the wrongdoer’s conduct. /Pg 15 0 R 338 0 R null] /Pg 16 0 R /TT2 389 0 R /S /Normal >> 124 0 obj endobj /S /P /Font << 326 0 R null 327 0 R null 328 0 R null 329 0 R null 330 0 R null /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /S /LBody endobj >> 20 [null null null 361 0 R null null null 227 0 R 228 0 R 229 0 R >> << endobj >> /S /P 362 0 obj Summary LAW OF DELICT CAUSATION This summaries are very helpful when it comes to studying the subject. It makes it a lot easier to understand the work. Preview 2 out of 8 pages /S /Normal /Pg 20 0 R /Pg 23 0 R endobj /Pg 22 0 R >> >> 192 0 obj << this suggest that neither jurisdiction considers causation an especially important part of the delictual analysis? >> endobj >> /Resources << /P 9 0 R /Pg 32 0 R /A 448 0 R endobj PVL3703 diagrams. /Pg 17 0 R /K 22 reasons of legal policy, or a combination of these reasons. /P 9 0 R /S /P >> >> /P 157 0 R endobj << /Contents 398 0 R /S /Normal 176 0 obj << /P 199 0 R >> 44 0 R null 233 0 R null 234 0 R null 235 0 R null 236 0 R null endobj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] >> >> << << /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 146 0 obj >> 177 0 obj /S /Footnote /K 17 endobj K. C. DESHANI THABREW ASSISTANT LECTURER IN LAW DEPARTMENT OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF JAFFNA. << /P 9 0 R /ModDate (D:20140808150224+01'00') /Parent 6 0 R endobj /K 21 /Font << /Parent 8 0 R << /Pg 31 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /P 84 0 R >> /Parent 7 0 R /P 195 0 R Causation in the Constitutional Court: Lee v Minister of Correctional Services Anton Fagan* I IntroduCtIon ... not committed a delict against the plaintiff.2 Its grounds for so concluding were three-fold. endobj /S /Normal 141 0 obj >> /S /Normal /P 45 0 R endobj /RoleMap 11 0 R << /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] >> /A 549 0 R << 268 0 obj /Pg 19 0 R /A 461 0 R >> This is also known as the ‘but-for’ test. A successful demonstration, however, “does … consequences criterion; the theory of fault; and the reasonable foreseeability criterion. Clerk, JF and Lindsell, Whb The Law of Torts (Wyatt … endobj 35 0 obj /P 40 0 R /P 148 0 R endobj >> /Resources << >> endobj /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] >> endobj /P 614 0 R /K 1 199 0 obj /StructParents 6 A test for factual causation is the conditio sine qua non theory which is also known as the “but for” test. /P 84 0 R /K 7 /A 458 0 R /Pg 23 0 R 175 0 obj endobj /P 9 0 R /K 7 /Xf1 371 0 R /SourceModified (D:20140807121137) 221 0 obj << endobj In both systems we can detect a degree of reticence among members of the judiciary in delving into causal issues. PVL3703 Law of Delict 2010 Mitzi Coertzen_SU 21-32. >> /S /Normal /K 19 /S /Normal 303 0 R null 304 0 R null 305 0 R null 306 0 R null 307 0 R null /K 16 /Annots [408 0 R] endobj /S /Normal << /S /P >> /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] There are various theories for determining legal causation including; the flexible approach, based on /A 443 0 R /A 421 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj /K 14 /K 608 0 R /K 4 /P 628 0 R endobj >> >> /Underline /Span << /Pg 31 0 R endobj >> << caused or contributed to the harm suffered by the plaintiff. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04]